The amount of total P applied by swine manure was lesser than through mineral fertilization Moreover, the amount of water soluble P also was lesser considering that the P water solubility in the mineral fertilizer is higher than in the swine manure. Kleinman et al. Particulate P PP concentration in runoff with application of liquid swine manure was greater than the NPK treatments in all rainfalls Table 1. The greater PP concentration in the soil amended with liquid swine manure was probably due to the transportation of organic particles by runoff, which are highly enriched by P.
The sediment enrichment during the runoff process by the DRP adsorption could also have contributed to this result Sharpley et al. Fertilizations also affected the concentrations of particulate P in the suspended sediments in the runoff PPs Table 1. In all rainfalls, the concentration of PPs was greater in treatment with swine liquid manure compared with the mineral fertilization and unamended soil Table 1. These results possibly are due to the great amount of solid particles of swine manure suspended in the runoff, which were rich in P, as well as the capacity of these particles to adsorb soluble ions from the runoff, such as phosphates.
The sediments transported by runoff have different sized particles and this affects the settling velocity. Finer and less dense particles, such as clay minerals and organic matter, present a slow sedimentation rate and remain suspended in water for longer periods. Considering this, the PPs loss has a great environmental importance because, as the DRP, it becomes a water diffuse pollution source far away from where the loss occurred.
So, it is important to use measures to retain the runoff in the field under no-till, as a "terraces" system, for example, since the runoff in no-till transports mainly soluble nutrients and suspended sediments. The concentration of total P TP in runoff was influenced by treatments, similar to the behavior of DRP concentration, yet, with less difference among treatments Table 1. The TP concentrations in all rainfalls with swine manure application were about three times greater than for the NPK and control treatments, even with less P applied by the swine manure in comparison to the mineral fertilization.
This probably occurred due to the transport of organic solid particles from manure remained on the soil surface which was not incorporated into the soil Allen and Mallarino, ; Pierson et al. The P water solubility and the high runoff volume Bertol et al. This shows the risk of even low intensity rainfalls on P loss Quinton et al. The rainfall intensities had a distinct effect in the concentration of different P forms.
TP concentration in runoff was more affected by intensity than the DRP concentration, but with an inverse effect since the TP concentration increased as the rainfall intensity increased for the liquid swine manure and NPK treatments, and the DRP concentration decreased, especially in the NPK treatment Table 1.
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Sharpley et al. According to them, the decrease in the DRP was a consequence of the soluble P reabsorption by the sediments transported during the erosion process. In our experiment, the soil loss was greater in the R3 rainfall third rainfall with mm h of intensity , independently of treatments Bertol et al. The TP concentration in runoff of the R3 rainfall third rainfall with mm h of intensity was about 1. These data indicate the effect of rainfall intensity as well as the soil hydrology in the TP concentration in runoff Shigaki et al.
The third rainfall intensity of mm h -1 also caused greater PP concentration in the runoff for all treatments Table 1. This can be explained by the higher intensity of this rainfall, transporting more sediment as soil and manure particles as shown by Bertol et al. This reinforces the importance of sediment transport on P losses, and the necessity to control soil erosion to avoid water eutrophication Simard et al. Considering the environmental issues, the TP loss through runoff causes an important impact in a water body where it is deposited Alberts and Spomer, According to the Brazilian legislation, TP concentration in lakes should not be greater than 0.
In our study, the environmental importance of TP loss by runoff was evident, since the highest The TP concentration even in the unamended soil was above the limit established to avoid eutrophication. These high TP concentrations in runoff can be explained by the high P soil level It is widely known that the no-till system causes a P accumulation at the soil surface Kimmell et al. The percentage of total P as DRP was greater with liquid swine manure application compared with NPK and unamended treatments in all rains.
DRP is readily available for aquatic organisms, and this high contribution of DRP allows to state that the liquid swine manure application in agricultural areas without vegetative or mechanical practices to control runoff greatly increases the risks of water degradation. The lesser concentration of sediments in the runoff of the first and second rainfall Bertol et al. The lower sediment concentration Bertol et al. In the third rain, there was a higher percentage of TP as PP Figure 1 reflecting higher sediment concentration in this rain Bertol et al. This possible occurred due to the transport of sediments rich in P as manure and soil particles at the soil surface.
It is interesting to explain that sediment transport was potentially increased by the sowing performed at the beginning of the experiment. Besides the agronomical issues, it is important to consider the environmental problems related to nutrient losses. This indicates that in order to control diffuse water pollution from no-till systems, it is necessary to prevent runoff in the agricultural field by best management practices. Even though more total P had been applied in the mineral fertilization These results are due to the combined effect of greater P concentration Table 1 with higher runoff volume Bertol et al.
Comparing the rainfall intensities, there was a sharp influence of this factor in total P loss. These show the combined effect of rainfall intensity and soil hydrological condition Shigaki et al. These differences reflect the effect of the runoff volume and the sediment concentration for the third and higher intensity rainfall.
The results from this study indicate a great potential of water contamination if the runoff from the no-tillage system reaches the water body, even from the areas without mineral and manure fertilization. So, it is recommended the use of vegetative and mechanical practices to control runoff Foster, , as plant cover, crop rotation, strip cropping, contour cultivation, and terraces SEAB, Also it is fundamental to have the riparian vegetation considering the important role on the pollutants filtering Smith et al.
The application at the soil surface, one day before the rain, of liquid swine manure at a rate of 60 m 3 ha -1 in no-till system, increased the concentrations and loads of dissolved reactive P, particulate P and total P in runoff in comparison with the mineral fertilizer. In general, the most intense rainfall caused a greater concentration and load of P in runoff. These results show the great potential of water contamination by slurry application at the soil surface just before rain, and also show the importance to keep the runoff out of the streams by increasing the runoff infiltration in the agricultural field with best management practices, as plant cover, crop rotation, strip cropping, contour cultivation, terraces and riparian vegetation.
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Keywords : phosphorus, nutrient loss, risk assessment tools, component P index, P source, P transport. Earth Sci. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Forgot Password? Suggest a Research Topic. Introduction Phosphorus P loss to surface freshwater is a key driver of environmental degradation Sharpley et al. Particulate Versus Dissolved P Phosphorus exported from terrestrial systems is a combination of dissolved P, and P that is bound to soil as particulate P. P Sources One of the limitations of P risk assessments is focusing on a limited number of potential sources, which may lead to ignoring sources that are relevant to the conditions in a given area.
Particulate P From Eroded Soil In many environments, the particulate P fraction represents the majority of total P leaving a field, although it may not represent the largest amount of bioavailable P. Dissolved P Desorbed From Soil When rain or snow-melt interacts with the soil surface, a small part of the P contained in that soil will dissolve and be transported with runoff water, either across the soil surface in surface runoff or diverted vertically through macropores to tile drains. Dissolved P Desorbed From Applied Fertilizer Fertilizer applied to the soil surface represents a highly soluble source of phosphorus, which can readily be mobilized in runoff water.
Dissolved P Released From Applied Manure Similar to fertilizer, manure is a highly available source of P for runoff, but has two key differences. Dissolved P Released From Frozen Plant Residue In areas where annual runoff is dominated by snowmelt, P that is released from frozen plant residue can represent a significant part of annual P losses to surface water Elliott, TABLE 1.
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